Elections and Events 1900-1929


Gow 1981:  "By the early 1900's Indians and ‘gamonales' were in a state of almost total confrontation.  The former fought for their lives, land and freedom:  the latter fought to destroy the Indian community and make the land theirs" (page 34).

Klarén 2000:  The "'generation of 1900'...would invigorate the ranks of Civilismo, just as the party's orientation shifted away from the interests of the older prewar plutocracy to a new export elite born out of the postwar economic recovery" (page 198).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(A)poyado por un grupo de disidentes demócratas, Durand fundaría en 1900 el Partido Liberal.  Desde entonces, Durand se distiguiría por estar detrás de las más importantes revueltas que estallaron en el país, sobre todo en los períodos electorales" (page 87).

Pike 1967:  "By 1900...approximately 110,000 voters, many of them with definite party affiliations, were inscribed in the electoral registry and the number climbed steadily if not spectacularly in the ensuing few years.  Although close to 90 per cent of the population was illiterate and therefore disfranchised, the urban middle groups, which were at least partially educated, claimed in ascending numbers the right of participating in politics" (page 182).  Describes members of the various parties (pages 182-183).  "The owners of large sierra estates, unchecked ‘caciques' of their kingdoms, focused their attention on national politics around the turn of the century and easily arranged to have themselves elected to congress.  Once installed therein these landowners, referred to in Peru as ‘gamonales,' were content to become the bureaucratic puppets of the executive Caesar.  Dependent upon the support of these congressmen, the president was not inclined to restrain their powers as absolute ‘caciques' in the sierra...However much some leaders of the ‘Civilista' Party, which shortly after the end of Piérola's administration became the dominant political group, were committed to the modernization of coastal Peru, they retreated before the obstacles that confronted them in the sierra and tended to forget about the region" (pages 183-184).

December:  municipal election

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La discordia entre el Partido Civil y el demócrata se hizo evidente con las elecciones municipales de diciembre de 1900.  Por primera vez, el Partido Demócrata participó sin el apoyo de los civilistas.  Los demócratas pensaron que llegando Piérola a la alcaldía, el ejercicio del cargo le serviría de trampolín para su reelección presidencial, pero la idea disgustó a los civilistas, que asumían que el candidato debía surgir de sus filas" (page 82).

Pike 1967:  "In Lima's bitterly-contested election for municipal officials held on 1 December 1900, Democrats and ‘Civilistas' supported separate lists.  Piérola himself was one of the councillor candidates and the assumption among his partisans was that the former president would be named mayor (‘alcalde') by his fellow city officials following a Democratic sweep.  As it turned out, the ‘Civilistas' gained the electoral majority.  Denied not only the expected office of mayor, but also failing to win a councillor's post in the Democratic defeat, the frustrated Piérola vowed to retire from politics" (page 187).

Stein 1980:  "Under the next president, Demócrata Eduardo López de Romaña (1899-1903), [the Civilista party] succeeded in nearly monopolizing important political offices.  In reaction to these events Piérola openly broke with his ex-allies in 1900, vowing to once again seek office in order to assist his party.  But the Civilistas' effective control of the critical posts in the power structure, particularlly the powerful Junta Electoral Nacional, reduced to a minmum Piérola's chances of making good on his promise of political resurgence" (page 28).

Werlich 1978:  "In a spirited contest for the Lima city council in 1900, the Civilista candidates defeated an overly optimistic Democratic slate led by Piérola.  Humiliated, the ex-president accused his successor of favoring the Civilistas, and the Democratic chieftain withdrew his support form the regime.  As the breach between Piérola and the president widened, López de Romaña was drawn into the Civilista camp.  The alliance of Peru's two largest political parties disintegrated" (page 131).


Astiz 1969:  "Until 1901 liberals had acted within other parties or as loosely organized groups.  In that year, because of disappointments with the Democrats, the Liberal party was founded under the leadership of one of Piérola's backers, Augusto Durand.  Although the liberals had available a ready-made political philosophy, their party became another electoral machine of brief duration" (page 92). 

Clayton 1999:  "Cerro de Pasco Corporation became the largest U.S. investor in Peru in the twentieth century.  It remained a major presence in Peru until it was nationalized in 1974.  Formed by a wealthy syndicate of U.S. capitalists in 1901 to exploit the rich copper mines of the Cerro de Pasco district in the Andean highlands, the Cerro Corporation's history symbolized much of the ambivalence and ambiguity in the modern history of relations between Peru and the United States" (page 86).

Davies 1974:  "(I)n 1901, Augusto Durand organized the Liberal party (Partido Liberal)" (page 47).

Palmer 1980:  "The political agreement among the most important political groupings came apart in 1901 when Piérola's Democratic plurality in Congress continuously harassed the Civilista party cabinet and government of independent López de Romaña" (page 60).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La desaparición de [los cívicos] se consolidó en la elección legislativa de 1901 al ser derrotado Valcárcel en su pretensión de reelegirse como senador.  Pero la crisis de la coalición no se circunscribió a los cívicos.  Ese mismo año el entendimiento entre civilistas y demócratas también llegaba a su fin" (page 80).

Pike 1967:  "Although Limeños were denied the services of the ex-president, they did obtain in 1901 perhaps the best mayor their city had had since Manuel Pardo.  In that year Federico Elguera began his eight-year tenure in the mayor's office" (page 188).

Pike 1967:  "The last half of the López de Romaña administration was further complicated by the appearance of the Liberal Party...The new party enjoyed considerable support from the professional classes and the new urban middle sectors, and also attracted recruits from the landowning ‘caciques' of the sierra as well as from the former members of the ‘Unión Nacional'" (page 189).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1901-1906.  Senadores titulares" (page 148).  "Congreso 1901-1906.  Senadores suplentes" (page 149).  "Congreso 1901-1906.  Diputados titulares" (pages 150-152).  "Congrso 1901-1906.  Diputados suplentes" (pages 152-154).

Werlich 1978:  "Founded by firebrand Augusto Durand in 1901, the Liberal party combined extreme anticlericalism with the advocacy of unfettered capitalism" (page 129).


Pike 1967:  "The split within the ranks of the Democrats was widened in 1902 when Billinghurst, living in Chile since his ill-fated revolution against López de Romaña, returned to Peru.  His intense hatred of the ‘Civilistas' [was] in no way diminished by the passing years" (page 188).  "The two parties quarrelled bitterly in selecting the candidates for the one-third of the congressional seats that were up for election in 1901.  Following that, Democrats and ‘Civilistas' abandoned all attempts at co-operation in formulating congressional lists" (page 189).


Astiz 1969:  "(D)ivided and isolated from the power elites of the time, [Unión Nacional] disappeared shortly after González Prada's resignation from the party presidency in 1902" (page 93).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  11/4:  "Manuel González Prada se separa de la Unión Nacional debido a discrepancias con sus correligionarios" (page 475).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  1/6:  "Regresa al Perú el general Andrés Cáceres y declara que no tiene ambiciones políticas" (page 475).

Pike 1967:  "(T)he harrassed president cast off his remaining ties with the Democrats and ruled exclusively with the ‘Civilistas.'  He found a new ally in 1902 when Andrés Cáceres returned to the country following his seven-year exile, determined, come what may, to prevent the re-election of his old enemy, Piérola.  Before long an agreement was celebrated between ‘Civilistas' and Constitutionalists, with both parties pledged to support the régime and policies of López de Romaña in the hope of obtaining his support for the presidential candidate they would jointly present in 1903.  There thus began a long-enduring collaboration between the ‘Civilistas,' who had come into being largely to thwart the political activities of the military, and the Constitutionalists, made up predominantly of military officers" (page 189).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(E)n septiembre de 1902 [fue designada] una Junta Electoral Nacional compuesta en su integridad por simpatizantes del civilismo" (page 84).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  25/10:  "Un violento manifiesto de la Cámara de Diputados señala que las bases constitucionales de la República se hallan destruidas" (page 475).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "En 1903 la coalición se disolvió ante la proximidad de la elección presidencial.  El civilismo llegó a un acuerdo electoral con el Partido Constitucional en términos muy similares al ‘concierto electoral' de 1898...La flamante alianza con el Partido Constitucional iba a asegurar a los civilistas la Presidencia hasta 1912" (page 84).

Werlich 1978:  "The Democratic party was split badly as the election of 1903 approached.  Some of its members abandoned the organization and joined Augusto Durand's Liberal party.  Those remaining within the Democratic fold divided their allegiances between the aging Piérola and Guillermo Billinghurst.  The rejuvenated Civilistas, meanwhile, negotiated a new alliance.  Ironicallly, the party of Manuel Pardo-born of antimilitarist sentiment thirty years earlier-now joined forces with the Constitutionalist party, the vehicle of Peru's soldier-politicians" (page 131).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  22/3:  "Las asambleas de los partidos Civil y Constitucional proclaman como postulante a la Presidencia de la República al ministro de Estado Manuel Candamo" (page 475).

May 25:  presidential election (Candamo)

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  25/5:  "Manuel Candamo, candidato de los partidos Civil y Constitucional y único postulante a la Presidencia, es elegido Presidente de la República" (page 476).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La oposición política la representaban el Partido Demócrata y el liberal.  La abstención electoral de los demócratas practicada en las elecciones de 1903 y 1904 obedeció a una decisión particular de Piérola.  La frase ‘abstenerse de votar no es abstenerse de la actuación política,' que justificó el retiro de su candidatura en 1903, terminó siendo en realidad una táctica de nefastas consecuencias para su propio partido porque facilitó su desplazamiento del Congreso" (page 86).

Pike 1967:  "Not having been in existence long enough to acquire significant strength, the Liberal Party took little part in the presidential elections of 1903.  Maintaining that none of the major parties deserved their support, Liberals backed a weak candidate whom they realized had no chance of success and watched sullenly as President López de Romaña and his ‘Civilista' and Constitutionalist partisans endorsed the presidential bid of Manuel Candamo" (page 190).

Stein 1980:  "After the election of Civilista Manuel Candamo to the presidency in 1903, the history of Peruvian politics through 1919 was essentially the history of the Partido Civil" (page 28).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Elecciones generales 1903.  Resultado nacional" (page 610).  Gives votes for José Pardo, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos," "votos emitidos," "ausentismo," and  "total de inscritos."

Werlich 1978:  "Candamo won the contest without opposition" (page 131).


Gardiner 1975:  "In July 1903, approximately 1080 [Japanese] settlers...arrived in Peru...Leguía, still closely identified with sugar production, was a leader among Peruvians arranging for this group" (page 26).  "This second contingent of Japanese both resembled and differed from their predecessors...They differed...on two accounts:  more than 15 percent of them were free, noncontract laborers and secondly, the group included more than one hundred wives" (page 27).


Clayton 1999:  Augusto B. Leguía's "first political appointment came in 1903 when he was named Minister of Finance in the cabinet of President Manuel Candamo.  He served in a number of other high-level financial posts in the next few years before his election as president in 1908" (page 99).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/9:  "Manuel Candamo asume la Presidencia de la República y nombra para el cargo de Presidente del Consejo de Ministros a José Pardo" (page 476).


Astiz 1969:  "In the 1904 presidential election, the Civil and Democratic parties joined forces against the Constitutional and Liberal parties" (page 93).

Klarén 2000:  "The domination of the Civilista Party...did not mean an end to oligarchical divisions or political factionalism, for the party itself had divided into major factions...Candamo had been able to keep the peace between the two warring factions, but his sudden death in early 1904 set off a fierce struggle over the selection of a successor.  [José] Pardo-son of the first Civilista president Manuel Pardo...won the [presidential] contest in 1904 and momentarily pacified the factions during his four-year term" (page 218).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(U)n grupo de dirigentes de la Confederación [de Artesanos]...se separó [de los pierolistas] en 1904 para formar el Partido Obrero Independiente.  Seguidamente, otra facción creó la Asamblea de Sociedades Unidas" (page 88).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/5:  "Fallece en la ciudad de Arequipa el presidente Manuel Candamo Iriarte" (page 477).  14/5:  "El Vicepresidente, doctor Serapio Calderón Chirinos, asume la Presidencia de la República" (page 477).

Pike 1967:  Candamo was "already in the final stages of a fatal sickness when he took office...(T)he president died on 7 May.  New presidential elections were at once scheduled for August" (page 191).  Describes efforts of the various parties to come up with candidates.

Werlich 1978:  "Peru suffered a great loss when Manuel Candamo, a man of ability, integrity, and conciliatory moderation, died only eight months after assuming office.  Instead of rapprochement between the Civilistas and Democrats, the nation experienced a bitter partisan fight that reopened old political wounds and inflicted new ones" (page 132).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  12/6:  "La asamblea civilista, compuesta por 2.000 delegados, oficializa la candidatura de José Pardo y Barreda a la Presidencia de la República y de José Salvador Cavero a la Vice-presidencia, días después de que éste logra el control de la directiva del Partido Civil y desplaza a los antiguos dirigentes encabezados por Lizardo Alzamora" (page 477).  24/6:  "Una gran manifestación demócrata y liberal se congrega en la Alameda de los Descalzos apoyando a sus candidatos-Nicolás de Piérola y Augusto Durand-, proclamados días antes" (page 477).

Palmer 1980:  "The younger generation of the Civilista party broke with the older in the 1904 campaign by nominating the 40-year old Pardo" (page 60).

Werlich 1978:  "(T)he younger Civilistas hoped to quicken the process of modernization...[They] nominated forty-year-old José Pardo.  The son of the first Civilista president, he had demonstrated his own merits as a scholar, businessman, and diplomat.  The Civilistas and Constitutionalists maintained their strange alliance of convenience to further Pardo's candidacy.  Meanwhile, an equally pragmatic pact linked the Democrats and their anticlerical critics of the Liberal party to elect Piérola" (page 132).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  26/7:  "La Alianza Civil-Constitucional alcanza la victoria parlamentaria en las cámaras legislativas" (page 478).

August 5

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  5/8:  "Nicolás de Piérola, líder del Partido Demócrata, comunica a sus simpatizantes y comités provinciales que se abstiene de presentarse como candidato debido a que el proceso electoral se encuentra viciado" (page 478).

Palmer 1980:  "Piérola withdrew his candidacy just before the 1904 elections after a turbulent campaign, thereby causing the still novel electoral process to lose standing in the eyes of the public.  His withdrawal was also a symptom of a growing separation between the electoral machinery and popular will" (page 60).

Pike 1967:  "(S)ensing that the rather haphazard Democratic-Liberal campaign could not successfully challenge the smooth and well-organized effort of the ‘Civilista'-Constitutionalist coalition, Piérola withdrew from the contest five days before the scheduled elections.  He justified this move on the grounds that the electoral tribunal would not permit an honest counting of returns" (page 192).

Werlich 1978:  "The emotion-charged campaign produced many violent incidents.  Then, five days before the start of balloting, Piérola accused the government of rigging the contest and withdrew from the race" (page 132).

August 10:  presidential election (Pardo)

Pike 1967:  "Unopposed at the last minute, Pardo received approximately 100,000 votes" (page 192).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Elecciones generales 1904.  Resultado nacional" (page 610).  Gives votes for José Pardo, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos," "votos emitidos," "ausentismo," and  "total de inscritos."


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/9:  "El doctor José Pardo y Barreda asume la Presidencia de la República" (page 478).

Werlich 1978:  "The first administration of José Pardo (1904-8) was the golden age of the Civilista party.  Partisan passion quickly subsided after the election and the new regime's respect for the constitution encouraged continued political peace" (page 132).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La elección del tercio legislativo de 1907 comprobó los temores formulados por Pardo.  La gestión electoral fue puesta al servicio de la coalición civil-constitucional, facilitando esto su triunfo en la mayor parte de las circunscripciones provinciales, pero esta vez el costo fue muy alto.  Por vez primera en la historia, la violencia electoral alcanzó niveles inéditos" (pages 85-86).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1907-1912.  Senadores titulares" (page 141).  "Congreso 1907-1912.  Senadores suplentes" (page 142).  "Congreso 1907-1912.  Diputados titulares" (pages 143-145).  "Congreso 1907-1912.  Diputados suplentes" (pages 145-147). 


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  31/7:  "Augusto B. Leguía dimite de los cargos de Presidente del Consejo de Ministros y de Ministro de Hacienda y Comercio, con el fin de preparar su candidatura a la Presidencia de la República" (page 482).  Julio:  "Se convoca a elecciones.  Augusto Bernardino Leguía se presenta como candidato único por el Partido Civil y, una vez más, Nicolás de Piérola no postula a causa de sus cuestionamientos al sistema electoral" (page 482).


Astiz 1969:  In the 1908 election "the Civil and Constitutional parties were on one side and the Democratic and Liberal organizations on the other" (page 94).

Klarén 2000:  "Pardo...chose...Civilista...Augusto B. Leguía, his minister of finance and top political adviser, as the party candidate for president in 1908.  The more conservative and aristocratic members of the old guard resented Leguía, whom they viewed as a middle-class upstart without the necessary connections to the old families.  For his part, Leguía, although a loyal party man, resented this snubbing by the old guard, and after his election, he arbitrarily proceeded to marginalize it from leadership positions in his new government" (page 218).

Palmer 1980:  "By 1908 the Civilista party had become the dominant entity among the major political groups of the country...In part this was due to its control of the National Electoral Board, the entity responsible for setting up elections procedures and for verifying the results" (page 60).

Werlich 1978:  "At the end of his term in 1908, Pardo obtained his party's endorsement for Augusto B. Leguía, his talented finance minister" (page 133). 


Pike 1967:  "Following an unsuccessful revolution on 1 May led by Augusto Durand, which resulted in the imprisonment of many Democrats and Liberals, Leguía remained as the sole candidate in the field" (page 195).

Werlich 1978:  "The enfeebled Democratic-Liberal coalition provided little electoral challenge to the Civilista-Constitutionalist alliance but staged an unsuccessful revolt on May 1, 1908.  The government arrested Liberal party chief Augusto Durand, who had led the uprising, along with several other prominent opposition figures" (page 133).

May 25:  presidential election (Leguía / Partido Civil)

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  25/5:  "Se llevan a cabo, sin dificultad, las elecciones políticas, lo que expresa un ánimo ciudadano contrario a los trastornos y rebeliones promovidos por los liberales de Augusto Durand y por los demócratas de Nicolás de Piérola, y que más bien apoya el orden y el progreso.  Gana holgadamente el candidato único Augusto B. Leguía" (page 483).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "(T)he Partido Civil imposed its chosen candidate, Augusto Bernardino Leguía (1863-1932) in 1908" (pages 158-159).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Leguía fue el tercer Presidente electo gracias al pacto civil-constitucional.  Cabe añadirse que su candidatura fue única, al negarse a intervenir en el proceso electoral los demócratas y liberales en protesta por la detención de buena parte de su dirigencia, acusada de colaborar en la intentona revolucionaria liderada por Augusto Durand, que no llegó a estallar nunca" (page 90).

Pike 1967:  "The elections of 25 May 1908, were a mere formality" (page 195).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Elecciones generales 1908.  Resultado nacional" (page 609).  Gives votes for Augusto B. Leguía, "votos válidos," "votos nulos y blancos y ausentes," and "total de inscritos."

Werlich 1978:  "Leguía was elected without further incident at the end of the month" (page 133).


Clayton 1999:  "Leguía was one of the most important chief executives in the formation of modern Peru.  Perhaps his foremost characteristic was a decided bias in favor of and admiration for the United States.  No Peruvian leader has surpassed his pro-Americanism.  Those he favored with political and economic power reflected this bias" (page 99).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/9:  "Se realiza la transmisión del mando del presidente José Pardo a Augusto B. Leguía, hecho que demostró que el país podía progresar en un ambiente de paz y sin caudillos" (page 484).

Pike 1967:  In "September Leguía was installed in the presidency.  Pardo, more popular at the end of his fruitful administration than upon assuming office four years earlier, was determined to give the new executive a free rein in the conduct of affairs and so departed for Europe.  He did not return to Peru until 1914" (page 195).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  25/11:  "Se promulga la Ley Electoral 861, que sustituye a la de 1896" (page 484).  30/11:  "Se constituye una nueva Junta Electoral Nacional nombrada por el Congreso" (page 484).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  Describes the changes to the electoral system contained in this law (pages 90-91).


Davies 1974:  "The best-organized and most powerful ‘indigenista' organization was the Pro-Indian Association founded in 1909" (page 54).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "(B)y 1909, there were 6,000 Japanese immigrants in Peru" (page 174).

Klarén 2000:  Guillermo Billinghurst "won the mayoralty of Lima in 1909" (page 223).

Nickson 1995:  "Despite a provision for direct elections in the 1892 municipal code, the appointment of local government officeholders by central government became the norm after 1909" (page 238).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  Marzo:  "Piérola acuña la frase ‘Abstenerse es obrar' para justificar la abstención de los demócratas en las elecciones parlamentarias" (page 485).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  14/5:  "Las elecciones parlamentarias realizadas otorgan una abrumadora mayoría a los civilistas; los demócratas, en cambio, son condenados a la impotencia parlamentaria" (page 485).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La coalición civil-constitucional fue unida por última vez a la elección del tercio legislativo de mayo de 1909, aunque era pública su discrepancia interna" (page 91).

May 29

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "El 29 de mayo, un grupo de demócratas...asaltaban el Palacio de Gobierno y tomaban prisionero a Leguía con el fin de exigirle su renuncia.  Con este golpe de efecto, los demócratas lograban su intervención extralegal más resonante en tiempos de lucha electoral.  El complot finalmente fracasó, pero el hecho sirvió de pretexto a Leguía para dotar a su gobierno de un carácter más personalista y represivo" (pages 91-92).

Pike 1967:  "On 29 May Carlos de Piérola, the brother, and Isaias and Amadeo de Piérola, the sons of the democratic caudillo..., launched what was perhaps the most audacious uprising in Peru's political history.  Joined by about twenty-five supporters, they stormed the national palace and succeeded in making Leguía their prisoner.  With the President in their power, however, the insurgents could not decide what to do with him" (page 196).  "With the rebellion against him so easily crushed, Leguía grew more arbitrary in his rule, giving many hints that he intended to dissolve the somewhat recalcitrant congress.  This led to a split within the ‘Civilista' Party" (page 197).

Werlich 1978:   "Leguía...used this opportunity to arrest many of his peaceful critics who had no connection with the conspiracy" (page 133). 



Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  9/10:  "El Congreso elige a sus delegados ante la Junta Electoral Nacional, entre los cuales hay un claro predominio civilista independiente, no gobiernista" (pag 487).


Klarén 2000:  "When the president tried to rig the congressional elections of 1911, his Civilista opponents formed the ‘Bloque' with members of the opposing parties.  Then, after an armed clash between the two sides outside the Congress building on July 13, the anti-Leguía wing bolted from the party to form the Partido Civil Independiente" (page 218).

Klarén 2000:  "By the end of his two-year term [as mayor of Lima], Billinghurst was a popular figure in the capital among the laboring classes as the presidential elections of 1912 approached" (page 223).

Sanborn 1991:  "(T)he first general strike took place in Lima in 1911, in support of workers at a British-owned textile factory in Vitarte who were demanding an 8-hour day.  Initially under the influence of anarcho-syndicalism, this labor movement would eventually become a key component of Peru's first mass-based political parties" (page 63).

Werlich 1978:   "Leguía's increasingly dictatorial methods caused a split within his own party and an antiadministration bloc of Civilistas in congress united with the small contingent of Democrats and Liberals to combat the president.  Leguía responded by purging the National Election Board, rigging the congressional election of 1911, and threatening to dissolve the legislature" (pages 133-134).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Ante el temor de perder las elecciones, en mayo de 1911 Leguía decretó la disolución de la Junta Electoral Nacional.  Pese a que el Parlamento calificó la medida como un acto ilegal, el gobierno ordenó continuar con las elecciones" (page 92).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Los registros y tribunales provinciales fueron conformados por asambleas de contribuyentes adictas al gobierno.  Esto y el cohecho gubernamental facilitaron el triunfo electoral del leguiísmo, que se transformaba en mayoría parlamentaria" (page 92).

Pike 1967:  "Leguía interfered scandalously in the 1911 congressional elections in order to assure the victory of men completely subservient to the presidential will" (page 197).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  13/7:  "Una turba, posiblemente organizada por el Gobierno, ataca a pedradas y a tiros la Cámara de Diputados, y después la invade" (page 488).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "El civilismo independiente buscó sobreponerse a la derrota formando en julio de 1911 el Bloque Parlamentario, una coalición antigubernamental a la que se sumaron los liberales y los constitucionales" (page 92).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/12:  "Ántero Aspillaga es proclamado candidato a la Presidencia de la República por el Partido Civil, cuya tendencia es gobiernista" (page 489).

Marett 1969:  "For the elections of 1912 the ‘civilistas,' believing themselves to be secure in their control over the electoral machine, put up a safe, but not very exciting, candidate in the person of Antero Aspíllaga, a wealthy landowner" (page 131).

Werlich 1978:   "Rumors spread that the president planned to cancel the election to choose his successor scheduled for 1912, claiming that pressing domestic and international problems made a change in government ‘inconvenient.'  Hoping to avert a presidential coup, the Civilistas nominated Antero Aspíllaga, a compromise candidate, for the presidency...Although Leguía endorsed the Civilista standard-bearer, his intentions continued to be suspect" (page 134).


Astiz 1969:  "(T)he presidential election of 1912 marked the beginning of a split between the upper class and the Partido Demócrata.  That party's winning candidate, Guillermo Billinghurst, managed to widen the split...and developed an obvious community of interest between the upper class and the armed forces" (page 135).

Hunefeldt 2004:  In 1912, "peasant unrest expanded, radicalized, and began questioning governmental policies.  In response, the new president, Guillermo Enrique Billinghurst, further opened political opportunities for peasants" (page 182).

Klarén 2000:  "When the Independent Civilistas failed to come up with a suitable candidate of their own, a large number of working-class clubs put forth Billinghurst's candidacy a month before the election...The problem was that Billinghurst had little time to organize his campaign, and Leguía refused his last-minute request to postpone the election" (page 223).

Klarén 2000:  "With the government's electoral apparatus firmly on the side of Aspíllaga's candidacy and limited suffrage (literacy and property qualifications) restricting popular participation, Leguía's denial aroused the workers to call another successful general strike on the day of the election.  This strike had the intended effect of so disrupting the election that the necessary one-third votes on election day were not cast.  As a result, the election was thrown into Congress, where Billinghurst and Leguía struck a deal" (page 223).

Klarén 2000:  "In return for selecting the president's brother as first vice president, Leguía, who held a congressional majority, ordered his supporters on August 9 to vote for Billinghurst.  For the moment, the dubious oligarchy acquiesced, not only because they were divided, but because they were convinced that however much he was a reformer, Billinghurst was one of them and would not jeopardize the fundamental interests of his class" (pages 223-224).

Klarén 2000:  "As an outsider in the Aristocratic Republic, [Billinghurst's] only real political asset, as the election had shown, was his ability to mobilize the workers in the streets to exert pressure on Congress and the establishment for reform.  In the end, however, this dangerous tactic would prove politically fatal by provoking the oligarchy to bring Billinghurst down by force after only eighteen months in office" (page 224).

Pike 1967:  "Leguía began plotting to cancel the 1912 elections and to prolong his stay in office.  His dreams of dictatorship were shattered, however, when the Democrat's second-in-command Guillermo Billinghurst returned from Chile, announced his candidacy, and, as the result of a dynamic campaign, built up the most massive and frenzied popular following of any political figure up to that time in Peru's republican history" (page 197).

Sanborn 1991:  The "urban popular upsurge led to Peru's first timid experiment with populist rule in 1912 when Guillermo Billinghurst, a former mayor of Lima, was elected president with considerable popular appeal" (page 63).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Elecciones generales 1912.  Resultado nacional" (page 609).  Gives votes for each presidential candidate, "votos válidos," and "total de inscritos."


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  11/2:  "Se celebra una conferencia entre civilistas independientes y demócratas con el fin de señalar un candidato de oposición al oficialista Ántero Aspíllaga.  Ésta termina en ruptura por el planteamiento de Nicolás de Piérola, quien se propone para ser candidato y líder de la oposición" (page 489).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  8/3:  "Nicolás de Piérola remite una circular a los presidentes de los comités del Partido Demócrata, donde niega toda participación en las elecciones políticas" (page 489).

Werlich 1978:   "Early in 1912, the president's enemies attempted to unite all of the antiadministration forces behind a common candidate.  But Nicolás de Piérola, who would die the following year, refused to participate.  It seemed certain that Aspíllaga would win the presidency if Leguía allowed the contest to be held' (page 134).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  4/5:  "Guillermo Billinghurst confirma estar recibiendo telegramas de todo el país en los que le proponen que se presente como candidato a la Presidencia de la República...A partir de ese momento se origina la llamada ‘candidatura popular' frente a la ‘candidatura de la imposición' representada por Ántero Aspíllaga" (page 490).  9/5:  "Se publica el Manifiesto de Billinghurst, donde pide que se suspendan las elecciones políticas por encontrarse viciado el sistema legal...Esta publicación produjo una inmediata adhesión ciudadana a su candidatura" (page 490).  25/5:  "Los pueblos de Lima y el Callao inician por primera vez un paro general de dos días.  Éste es acatado totalmente y frustra la realización de las elecciones políticas consideradas fraudulentas" (page 490).

Marett 1969:  "A radical member of the Democratic Party, Guillermo E. Billinghurst, decided to stand as the opposition candidate in the hope that, by appealing directly for the support of the urban masses in Lima and Callao, he could successfully give battle to the well-entrenched but now divided ‘civilistas.'  In the event he was swept into power on the crest of a wave of popular enthusiasm.  It was the first time in the history of Peru that the urban working class had played a significant part in the choice of a President" (pages 131-132).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La tensión entre el gobierno y los obreros rodeó la elección presidencial de mayo de 1912...El movimiento electoral en favor de Billinghurst surgió en el sur del país pero, a principios de mayo, captaba ya las simpatías del electorado obrero de la capital.  Sabedor de que contaba con ‘el número en las calles pero no en las urnas', Billinghurst exigió a Leguía suspender el proceso electoral y convocar nuevos comicios.  El gobierno...confirmó la fecha de las elecciones, y redujo su duración de cuatro a dos días...El boicot surtió el efecto deseado, ya que por vez primera desde la vigencia de la ley de 1896 la administración electoral ejercida por el gobierno fue insuficiente para dar el triunfo a una candidatura oficial" (page 94).

Werlich 1978:   "(I)n early May, less than a month before the balloting, Guillermo Billinghurst gained control of the Democratic party and entered the race.  A millionaire businessman of English descent, he was noted for his brilliance and, more importantly, his volatility.  Billinghurst believed that the survival of republican government and capitalism in Peru depended upon reforms to make these systems benefit the common people as well as the nation's elite...At a rally of 20,000 enthusiastic supporters...the Democratic leader charged that Leguía would not permit a fair vote and called for the ‘sovereign people' to demonstrate their power in the streets" (page 134).

May 25

Werlich 1978:   "A general strike in the capital, the nation's first, greeted the start of the election on May 25.  At the same time, gangs of Billinghurst's partisans attacked polling places, intimidating voters and destroying ballots.  Their apparent strategy was simple.  If fewer than one-third of the registered voters cast ballots, the law required congress to select a president itself, or arrange a new election...The president's police did little to maintain order, and the polls, which had remained open for a week in previous elections, were closed by executive decree after only two days" (pages 134-135).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  14/6:  "Se publica el último Manifiesto de Piérola en el que declara ser partidario de la anulación de las elecciones políticas y de la convocatoria a otro proceso.  También se pone a distancia de la candidatura popular de Billinghurst" (page 490).

Pike 1967:  "The Democratic Party had come virtually to an end with the Piérola-Billinghurst split of 1912" (page 218).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  19/8:  "El Congreso de la República elige por 132 votos a Guillermo Billinghurst para ocupar el cargo de Presidente de la República durante el periodo 1912-1916" (page 491).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Al no alcanzar Aspíllaga el porcentaje mínimo de votos exigidos por la ley para alcanzar la presidencia, esta decisión tuvo que trasladarse al Congreso.  Contra todo pronóstico, Billinghurst fue ungido Presidente por el Congreso gracias a que el sector leguiísta, descartando a su candidato oficial, llegó a un acuerdo de gobierno con él presionado por la reacción popular" (page 94).

Werlich 1978:   "Aspíllaga claimed victory with over one-third of the popular votes.  But the legislature nullified the contest, charging that widespread fraud had occurred in the provinces carried by the Civilista candidate.  While Billinghurst's supporters contined their street demonstrations and even invaded the halls of congress, the Democratic and Leguiísta legislators reached a compromise.  Billinghurst was declared president and Roberto Leguía, the brother of the departing executive, received the vice-presidency" (page 135).


Davies 1974:  Billinghurst "embarked upon a program designed to alleviate many of the social ills that existed within the country, but his methods and language frightened many of the old Civilistas and other conservative factions" (page 59).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/9:  "Guillermo E. Billinghurst asume la Presidencia de la República" (page 491).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "Billinghurst was not part of the oligarchy but a representative of the emerging middle class" (page 159).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  23/12:  "El voto de censura en las cámaras del Senado y de Diputados al Ministro de Gobierno y Presidente del Consejo de Ministros origina la caída del gabinete...Se produce un conflicto de poderes" (page 491).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  Discusses the electoral law promulgated in December 1912 (page 95).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La elección del tercio legislativo de 1913, en la que se aplicó la nueva reglamentación descentralizada, no trajo ninguna novedad en lo que respecta a la gestión del sufragio" (page 95).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1913-1918.  Senadores titulares" (page 134).  "Congreso 1913-1918.  Senadores suplentes" (page 135).  "Congreso 1913-1918.  Diputados titulares" (page 136).  "Congreso 1913-1918.  Diputados titulares" (pages 137-138).  "Congreso 1913-1918.  Diputados suplentes" (pages 138-140).

Werlich 1978:   "At the end of Billinghurst's first year in office, the Civilistas, Constitutionalists, and Liberals had united to block his programs in congress" (page 136).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  17/6:  "Se constituye un nuevo Gabinete...para imprimir un nuevo rumbo político a la gestión del presidente Billinghurst" (page 492).  23/6:  "Fallece el caudillo y estadista Nicolás de Piérola" (page 492).


Klaiber 1992:  "In October 1913, the groundwork for founding the Catholic party of Arequipa was laid" (page 87).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  21/11:  "Los diputados se reúnen para redactar un manifiesto de protesta contra un supuesto decreto que dispone la disolución del Poder Legislativo, así como para declarar la vacancia de la Presidencia.  Se inicia de este modo el movimiento revolucionario de los parlamentarios" (page 493).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(L)os rumores a fines de 1913 de que el Presidente se disponía a clausurar el Parlamento e imponer una dictadura, forzaron al Bloque a llegar a un acuerdo con el Ejército para desalojar a Billinghurst del poder" (page 96).

Pike 1967:  "Within a year after his inauguration, the President was encountering mounting congressional opposition to a wide variety of his policies.  Billinghurst responded by encouraging the workers of Lima and Callao to stage demonstrations intended to intimidate the lawmakers.  These tactics only stiffened the resolve of congress to resist the impetuous President" (page 200).

Werlich 1978:   "The legislature...began impeachment proceedings against [Billinghurst] and the president called for the replacement of congress by an assembly representative of the ‘real will' of the people" (pages 136-137).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  26/12:  "Se promulga la ley 1777, ley provisional de elecciones" (page 493).



Astiz 1969:  "The Lima garrison revolted in February of 1914 and Colonel Oscar R. Benavides, escorted by the Prado brothers, his ‘civilian advisors,' took over the presidency.  This event marks the beginning of an effective collaboration between the armed forces and the coastal sector of the traditional upper class, with the acquiescence of the Sierra landowners" (page 135).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  4/2:  "Un golpe de Estado depone a Guillermo Billinghurst, y el general Varela es asesinado...por los militares amotinados.  Los senadores y diputados reunidos horas después formulan un voto de gratitud al Jefe del Estado Mayor Del Ejército, coronel Óscar Benavides, y autorizan la formación de una Junta de Gobierno integrada por cinco miembros del Gabinete Ministerial bajo la presidencia de este militar" (page 494).

Klarén 2000:  "(D)irect participation by the masses in the traditionally closed, elitist political system...was an unacceptable challenge to the oligarchy.  The rumored conspiracy against Billinghurst ominously involved important members of the political parties, the business community, and the army.  After Billinghurst began to distribute arms to his supporters on the afternoon of February 3, 1914,...the conspirators, led by Colonel Oscar R. Benavides, commander of the Lima garrison, arrested the president at dawn the next day and sent him into exile in Chile" (page 224).

Pike 1967:  "On the very afternoon of Billinghurst's overthrow, congress met and named a civilian-military junta to wield provisional executive power" (page 202).

Werlich 1978:   "(T)he armed forces, whose cooperation was essential for a successful coup, were reluctant to strike against their commander in chief.  Then they learned that the president planned to open the military arsenal, arm the workers, and dissolve congress by decree.  On the morning of February 4, 1914, troops under the command of Col. Oscar R. Benavides stormed the Palace of Pizarro and ousted Billinghurst" (page 137).  "The revolution that ousted President Guillermo Billinghurst in February 1914 differed from earlier military coups and marked an important watershed in Peruvian politics.  After almost two decades of increased professionalism and reduced interference in government, the soldiers had been coaxed from their barracks into the center of the political arena by civilian politicians.  Acting in the name of the armed forces as a whole, rather than at the bidding of a single ambitious caudillo as in earlier times, the military intervened to rescue the elite-dominated political system from a threat by the urban working class...Col. Oscar R. Benavides assumed the executive power after the overthrow of Billinghurst and installed a mixed military-civilian cabinet" (page 147).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  15/5:  "El Congreso encarga la presidencia provisoria de la República al coronel Óscar R. Benavides hasta la realización de las elecciones políticas" (page 494).

Pike 1967:  "Appointed at first as the junta's presiding officer, Oscar R. Benavides was on 15 May, following a bloodless ‘coup' engineered by the junta and a part of congress, declared provisional President" (page 202).



Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  27/2:  "José de la Riva-Agüero funda, en Lima, el Partido Nacional Democrático" (page 495).  Febrero:  "Se sanciona la nueva Ley Electoral, ley 2108" (page 495).

Pike 1967:  "The National Democratic Party was the rather apathetic political action group of a generation of gifted intellectuals, the so-called generation of 1900" (page 203).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  28/3:  "La convención de partidos elige a José Pardo para el cargo de Presidente de la República" (page 496).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "El golpe supremo a las aspiraciones del gobierno provisional ocurrió en la convención de los partidos.  A ella concurrieron las dos facciones del Partido Civil, el Partido Liberal y el constitucional.  La elección interna de los convencionales favoreció la candidatura presidencial de José Pardo" (page 97).

Pike 1967:  "Presided over by Andrés Cáceres...the convention was attended by representatives of the Civil, Constitutional and Liberal Parties.  The Democratic Party alone among the established and traditional political groupings failed to send delegates...The overwhelming majority of those participating in the convention temporarily forgot their political and personal differences and in a burst of patriotic enthusiasm nominated José Pardo" (page 203).

Planas 2000:  "(L)as ‘elecciones primarias' realizadas en 1915 en el Perú, con vistas a las elecciones generales de ese año, no fueron una ‘elección interna' en un partido político, sino la elección concertada de un candidato presidencial común elegido por delegados de varias agrupaciones políticas, antaño rivales entre sí.  En realidad, fue una Convención de Partidos" (page 87).  "En la Convención participaron cuatrocientos dieciocho delegados.  La votación arrojó un primer resultado a favor del candidato civilista, el ex presidente José Pardo" (page 88).  Gives details.

Werlich 1978:   "Benavides was anxious to relinquish the burdens of the provisional presidency, but he wanted to avoid the bitter partisanship that had marred recent elections.  At his urging, representatives of the Civilista, Liberal, and Constitutionalist parties met in March 1915 to choose a common candidate for president.  The feeble Democratic organization did not participate in this process, but the nomination of former President José Pardo satisfied many of its members" (page 148).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  25/4:  "(E)l 25 de abril la misma convención elegirá a Ricardo Bentín y a Melitón Carbajal para ocupar los cargos de vicepresidentes de la República" (page 496).

August:  presidential election (Pardo / Civilista)

Astiz 1969:  "President José Pardo, of the Partido Civilista,...was re-elected in 1915 with military backing" (page 136).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  9/8:  "La Comisión de Escrutinio del Congreso reconoce el triunfo de José Pardo en las elecciones presidenciales, así como la victoria de los vicepresidentes electos.  Al siguiente día, el Congreso vota por unanimidad tanto por el Presidente como por los vicepresidentes elegidos, y los proclama como tales" (page 496).  18/8:  "Se inicia el segundo Gobierno de José Pardo tras la renuncia, presentada con treinta días de anticipación, de Óscar R. Benavides a la Presidencia Provisoria" (page 496).

Klarén 2000:  Benavides "suggested in 1915 that a ‘Convención de Partidos'...of all the political parties...be convoked to select a civilian president.  The convention...met in August, and selected former President José Pardo y Barreda president on the third ballot" (page 226).

McClintock 1999:  "New elections were held in 1915, and José de Pardo y Barreda, a sugar magnate, became president" (page 315).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(E)l 23 de agosto de 1915, ya sin el peligro que representaba la presencia del Ejército en el poder, el Parlamento recién aprobó la ley electoral" (page 97).

Pike 1967:  "Running unopposed, Pardo received 131,289 votes" (page 203).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  11/9:  "El Congreso promulga la ley 2193, que reforma la Constitución de 1860 en el sentido de permitir el ejercicio público de otras iglesias cristianas ajenas a la Iglesia Católica.  Se producen protestas" (page 496).  24/9:  "Asume la Presidencia Constitucional por segunda vez José Pardo" (page 496).

Klaiber 1992:  Congress decided "in 1915 to eliminate the restriction against the practice of non-Catholic religions.  In spite of this official modification, however, the Catholic church did not change its attitude of hostility to the founding of opposing religions" (pages 94-95).

Werlich 1978:   "The always divisive religious issue came to the fore at the very beginning of the new administration.  Following mob violence against Protestant missionaries in the southern highlands, congress debated a bill to permit the public practice of religions other than Roman Catholicism...(T)he Liberals and many Civilistas believed that Peru's religious exclusivism damaged its reputation...and discouraged immigration and foreign investment by non-Catholics.  After a bitter debate the legislature approved the Law of Religious Toleration...As Pardo feared, he became the target of unmerciful attacks from the pulpit" (page 148). 


Gardiner 1975:  "When the ‘Senjō Maru' docked at Callao in January 1916, the hundreds of Chinese and Japanese had scarcely set foot ashore before newspapers attacked the rising tide of ‘yellow' immigrants'" (page 35).


Gow 1981:  "Rumi Maqui's protest movement was no small, short lived rebellion.  It involved the mobilization of all the Indians from the Peruvian and Bolivian ‘altiplano' to the coastal regions of Nazca and Ica.  Unfortunately because the revolution, which [had] been set for Carnival, 1917, was prematurely discovered it had to be set forward to December 1916.  The results were disastrous.  Government troops put the rebellion down with the utmost ferocity" (page 128).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(L)a elección del tercio legislativo de 1917 debió convertirse en una de las más importantes de todas las llevadas a cabo en la República Aristocrática....El triunfo de la coalición gubernamental, la alianza civil-liberal, conformada por el civilismo pardista, los constitucionales y los liberales, se vería empañado además por la serie de escándalos que se presentaron durante la depuración de las listas ganadoras en el Tribunal Supremo...La sospecha de que el gobierno había intervenido de nuevo en la gestión del voto contribuyó al mayor desprestigio de los partidos entre el electorado" (pages 98-99).


Davies 1974:  "Leguía had been a Civilista and had been elected on the Civilista ticket in 1908.  He was never comfortable in Civilista ranks, however, and in 1918 he eschewed their support and sought instead to develop a new political base" (page 68).

Pike 1967:  "As his troubled term drew towards a close, Pardo sounded out the leaders of the various political parties about holding an interparty convention similar to the one of 1915 to agree upon a single candidate.  When it became apparent that the rival ambitions of a number of political leaders would make it impossible to repeat the 1915 electoral pattern, Pardo, backed by many ‘Civilistas,' decided to advance the candidacy of Antero Aspíllaga" (page 213). 

Sanborn 1991:  "(I)t was food riots and labor strikes that contributed to the downfall of the Aristocratic Republic.  In 1918 miners, port workers and textile workers went out on strike" (page 64).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  Marzo:  "Se establece una nueva Junta Directiva del Partido Civil presidida por Ántero Aspíllaga, quien reemplaza a Javier Prado y Ugarteche" (page 499).


Astiz 1969:  "Leguía returned to the presidency in 1919 by force at the head of a coalition of some members of the coastal plutocracy, the bureaucratic and commercial middle class, and a tiny but well-organized group of urban workers" (page 40).

Conaghan 2000:  "The demise of aristocratic parties by 1919 marked the end of the ‘easy' phase of oligarchic rule and forced dominant elites to employ a variety of strategies to control Peru's changing political landscape" (page 255).

Dietz 2002:  "Augusto Leguía seized power in 1919 and ruled through noncompetitive elections until 1930, when he was overthrown" (page 199).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(L)a alianza civil-liberal no sobrevivió sino hasta principios de 1919" (page 99).

Werlich 1978:   "With the end of his term approaching in turbulent 1919, José Pardo hoped to arrange another broad coalition such as that which had elected him four years earlier.  Peru's politicians, however, could not agree on a compromise candidate...Ultraconservative Antero Aspíllaga again received the Civilista nomination" (pages 149-150).


Sanborn 1991:  The 1918 strike "culminated in a three-day general strike in January 1919 in demand of lower food prices and labor reforms.  This struggle merged with the efforts of university students for reform of Peru's elitist system of higher education, a movement led by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, the future founder of the APRA party" (page 64).


Werlich 1978:   "Former President Augusto B. Leguía, returned home from his European exile in Febrary 1919 and announced his willingness to accept ‘the nation's call' for his leadership...Denouncing the Civilista ‘oligarchy' and promising to create a ‘New Fatherland'..., Leguía won a broad base of popular support...In the end, politicians scrambled to board Leguía's bandwagon.  He received endorsements from the Liberal and Constitutionalist parties, some progressive Civilistas, a small socialist organization, the student federation, and various labor groups" (page 150).

May 1

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  1/5:  "Luis Ulloa y Carlos del Barco fundan el Partido Socialista" (page 501).

May 18-19:  election (Leguía)

Basadre 1980:  "Las controvertidas elecciones de mayo de 1919" (pages 91-94).  "Las paradojas en los cómputos de las elecciones de mayo de 1919" (pages 94-95).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "Antero Aspíllaga, a northern coast sugar baron, turned out to be a weak ‘civilista' candidate, and the other parties in the presidential campaign flagged:  The Democratic Party was debilitated after its leader, Nicolás de Piérola, died in 1913; the Constitutional Party-whose candidate was Andrés Avelino Cáceres, the hero of the War of the Pacific-was basically a conglomerate of war veterans; and the new Liberal Party-did not have a social base or a defined political project" (page 188).

Klarén 2000:  "In the [May 18-19 presidential] elections, the Civilista and official candidate Antenor Aspíllaga appeared to have lost to his challenger, ex-Civilista, former president, and political maverick Augusto B. Leguía (1908-1912).  Aspíllaga appealed for a recount to the Supreme Court, claiming that irregularities in balloting had occurred in the countryside, where he was considered to have much of his electoral strength" (page 238).

Marett 1969:  "In 1919 the time arrived for new elections.  The contending candidates were Antero Aspíllaga, who once again was chosen to represent the ‘Civilista' Party, and ex-President Leguía, who had now returned to the country where he proceeded to form his own ‘Independent' Party in opposition to the ‘civilistas.'  During his exile, the middle-class Leguía had come to be regarded by the masses as their champion.  Like Billinghurst, he won the election with a landslide" (page 134).

McClintock 1999:  "When elections were held in 1919, the winner was Augusto Leguía, a former Civilista president (1909-1912) who had broken with the party, been exiled for several years, and campaigned as a populist reformer against a status-quo Civilista candidate" (page 315).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La elección presidencial de 1919 marcó el punto de inflexión final de la práctica electoral exclusionista en la que intervinieron todos los partidos políticos de la República Aristocrática...El resultado de las elecciones del 18 y 19 de mayo de 1919 dio el triunfo a Leguía con 122,736 votos sobre Aspíllaga, que obtuvo 64,936 votos, pero la depuración realizada por el Tribunal Supremo puso al descubierto el extremo al que habían llegado todos los partidos en la falsificación del sufragio" (page 99).  Discusses the election (pages 99-100).

Pike 1967:  "Pardo refrained from interfering in the outcome of the May elections and Leguía won a resounding victory over Aspíllaga" (page 214).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: "Congreso 1919-1924.  Senadores" (page 131).  Gives "departamento/apellidos y nombres."  "Congreso 1919-1924.  Diputados" (pages 132-133).  Gives "dpto./provincia" and "apellidos y nombres."  "Elecciones generales 1919.  Resultado nacional" (page 609).  Gives votes for each presidential candidate and "votos válidos."

Werlich 1978:   "Peruvians went to the polls on May 18, 1919.  Within a week, early returns indicated a decisive victory for Leguía" (page 151).

May 27

Werlich 1978:   "Believing that the waning Pardo regime was now especially vulnerable, the workers and students called a general strike on May 27...Unlike the January work stoppage, widespread violence took place" (page 151).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  Junio:  "Las elecciones presidenciales favorecen a Augusto B. Leguía en la asamblea de mayores contribuyentes.  Las elecciones transcurren en un ambiente de tranquilidad" (page 501).

Werlich 1978:   "After a week of tension Pardo responded forcefully...Leguía watched these events with growing apprehension...(H)e justifiably feared that the government might block his August inauguration.  Aspíllaga refused to admit defeat and provincial election officials showed great zeal in scrutinizing pro-Leguía ballots for irregularities" (page 151).


Basadre 1980:  "En 1919, al surgir el golpe de Estado del 4 de julio, las provincias eran ciento doce y los diputados ciento treinta" (page 24).

Clayton 1999:  "A coup in Lima on July 4, 1919, brought Augusto B. Leguía to power once again.  A new era in the relations between Peru and the United States was ushered in by this second presidency of Leguía, which lasted until 1930" (page 103).  "To many of Leguía's critics, the tying of Peru's fortunes to the United States undermined Peru's sovereignty and independence" (page 105).

Davies 1974:  "During the oncenio, [Leguía] sought to destroy politically the old socioeconomic class that had ruled Peru for forty years.  He systematically suppressed the old political parties, particularly the Civilistas, while seeking the support of the rising middle class in rural and urban regions" (page 68).  "Upon taking office, Leguía launched the most extensive program of Indian legislation ever attempted in Peru" (page 69).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  4/7:  "Golpe de Estado contra el presidente José Pardo por la Gendarmería y la Marina de Guerra.  Se proclama el inicio del Gobierno del ‘elegido por los pueblos', Augusto B. Leguía, y se inicia así el ‘Oncenio de la Patria Nueva'" (page 501).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "Although ‘civilistas' had brought him to power in 1980, Leguía now faced ‘civilista' opposition in parliament.  Claiming there had been electoral fraud, he closed down the parliament and governed Peru until 1930 with only a perfunctory bow toward democracy" (page 159).  "On July 4, 1919, [Leguía] instigated a coup d'état, which he believed would increase his ultimate control of the state.  Even if Leguía had won the elections, he certainly would have found much opposition in congress, where only two-thirds of its members were newly appointed every four years.  The coup allowed Leguía to dissolve congress and put together another that would support his policies" (page 188).

Klaiber 1992:  "The union between church and state was never so visible in modern times, or had such negative consequences for the church, as during the eleven-year rule (the ‘Oncenio') of Augusto B. Leguía, 1919-30.  Leguía signified the beginning of the end of the traditional oligarchy and the rise of the emergent middle classes" (page 99).

Klarén 2000:  "On July 4, Leguía executed a preemptive coup against the Pardo government after a series of Supreme Court decisions had been promulgated in favor of his opponent Aspíllaga over the alleged voting irregularities in the May elections" (page 239).

Marett 1969:  "(F)earing that the ‘civilistas' might seek by fraudulent means to annul the elections, [Leguía] seized the presidential palace and placed President Pardo under arrest.  This was the end of the ‘Civilista' Party as such; for no sooner was Leguía in power than the leading members of this party, including Pardo, were deported" (pages 134-135).

McClintock 2003:  "(D)espite his apparent election in 1919, [Leguía] seized presidential power by force prior to his inauguration.  Leguía's actions seemed prompted primarily by his disinclination to govern against a congress dominated by the opposition.  Although Leguía sought to maintain a democratic façade to his government, it was considered a dictatorship by the vast majority of Peruvians" (pages 13-14).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Tras lograr que el Ejército lo reconociera como Presidente provisional, Leguía convocó el 9 de julio de 1919 un plebiscito...(S)e dispuso que la población votara en bloque por 19 reformas constitutionales, entre las que destacaban:  la renovación total del Poder Legislativo, acabando con la práctica de la elección por tercios sancionada en el reglamento de 1896; la reducción de los escaños parlamentarios con un Senado de 35 miembros y una Cámara integrada por 110 diputados;...y, por último, la instalación del Congreso como Asamblea Nacional para promulgar en un plazo de treinta días ‘las reformas que resulten aprobadas por el voto plebiscitario...Por decreto del 14 de julio de 1919, el gobierno provisional señaló el procedimiento para hacer la elección parlamentaria.  Sólo podían votar los varones mayores de 21 años, alfabetos e inscritos en el registro militar'" (pages 100-101).  Gives further details.

Pike 1967:  "The revolutionists justified their actions by claiming that Pardo and the congress had entered into a last-minute plot to annul the results of the elections and deny Leguía the presidency.  No adequate proof of a Pardo conspiracy has ever been advanced.  Instead, it has become increasingly clear that Leguía and his supporters decided to resort to force so as to be able to dissolve congress, which contained a majority that was hostile to the successful candidate, and to arrange for the election of a new legislature composed of loyal partisans" (pages 214-215).

Werlich 1978:   "By July, the Supreme Election Tribunal in Lima had invalidated 15,000 votes for Leguía and had agreed to hear a suit for the nullification of the entire contest.  Former President Andrés A. Cáceres organized pro-Leguía elements of the armed forces for a coup.  Leguía gave the order to strike on July 3...They arrested Pardo and proclaimed Leguía provisional president.  Immediately after taking the oath of office, Leguía issued a decree dissolving the Civilista-dominated congress, accusing the legislators of conspiring with Pardo to defraud the electorate" (page 151).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  20/8:  "Se deporta a enemigos del Gobierno del presidente Augusto B. Leguía" (page 502).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "When Leguía exiled opposition ‘civilistas' in 1919, the Partido Civil disappeared from Peru's political map" (page 159).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  Los "19 artículos de la reforma constitucional [fueron] sometidos al voto plebiscitario en agosto de 1919...La consulta popular, realizada con todos los mecanismos que permitían el fraude y la exclusión de la oposición, dio el triunfo a la propuesta leguiísta" (pages 101-102).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  24/9:  "La Asamblea Nacional se instala, inicia el escrutinio de las pasadas elecciones presidenciales de junio y proclama presidente de la República a Augusto B. Leguía, y a sus vicepresidentes" (page 502).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  El "reglamento electoral fue aprobado por la Ley 3083 del 2 de septiembre de 1919" (page 101).


Basadre 1980:  "El plebiscito" (pages 102-104).  "Apreciación sobre el plebiscito de 1919" (pages 104-106).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  2/10:  "Mediante la ley 4000 se convoca a plebiscito con el fin de consultar a la ciudadanía sobre diecinueve temas de reforma constitucional" (page 502).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La abrumadora victoria de las reformas consultadas por el gobierno provisional en el plebiscito se complementó el 12 de octubre de 1919, cuando la Asamblea legalizó los resultados electorales de mayo del mismo año que dieron el triunfo a Leguía y acordó que el nuevo gobierno finalizara el 12 de octubre de 1924" (page 102).


Marett 1969:  "An assembly of hand-picked adherents was called together to draft a new constitution in which the presidential term was increased from four to five years and provision made for the election of a new Congress which would remain in being for the same five-year period.  Under the earlier constitution one-third of the Congress had been renewed every two years-a system which would have allowed the ‘civilista' opposition to retain a majority in that body.  Now, by a clean sweep, [Leguía's] enemies were eliminated from the legislature and the newly elected Congress was filled with his friends" (page 137).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La Asamblea oficialmente concluyó sus funciones el 27 de diciembre de 1919 con la aprobación de la nueva Constitución, que sustituyó a la que venía rigiendo desde 1860" (page 102).


Clayton 1999:  "The expansion of U.S. businesses in Peru in the 1920s kept apace with Leguía's determination to cultivate stronger and closer ties with the United States.  The three principal U.S. companies in Peru-Cerro de Pasco, W.R. Grace, and International Petroleum Company (I.P.C.)-expanded and diversified their activities, eventually dominating the mining, petroleum, and textile industries, for example" (page 105).

Gow 1981:  "The major goal of highland landowners from 1920 to 1950 was to stabilize and formalize ties with the coastal elites in order to make the ‘latifundio' more productive, efficient and capital-intensive and consequently less dependent on its Indian labor force.  Ties were also formalized with politicians, judges and bankers and it was also normal for landowners to hold political office" (page 38).  "The Leagues of Hacendados formed in several provinces in the southern Andes during the 1920s defended the interests and rights of ‘hacendados' to control Indian labor and lands.  Recruiting the support of politicians and justices at the regional and national levels, the ‘hacendado' leagues lobbied effectively against pro-Indian legislation in the fields of education, community rights and labor relations" (page 81).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "By 1920 the Cerro de Pasco Corporation and Northern Peru Mining, another U.S. company, working in La Libertad, controlled almost all Peruvian copper, silver, and gold" (page 160).  "A similar chain of events happened to the oil fields in northern coastal Peru, where they became the property of British and U.S. companies...These companies worked as enclaves in the Peruvian economy; that is, they had little effect on Peru's internal economy, and technology and engineers came from abroad" (page 161).

Klarén 2000:  Leguía "created an Office for Indigenous Affairs in 1920" (page 247).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  Describes the various political parties at the beginning of 1920 (page 103).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  El Partido Democrático Reformista (1920) es "fundado por Augusto Bernardino Leguía Salcedo" (page 673).

Van Cott 2005:  "Beginning in 1920, legally recognized indigenous communities began to elect ‘juntas comunales,' continuing a centuries-old tradition of choosing rotating traditional authorities" (page 145).

Vargas 1994:  "The struggle for suffrage was initiated in the 1920s by the first feminist groups in the country" (page 579).


Alcántara Sáez 1989:  "La Carta de 1920 no fue conservadora o liberal, debate ya superado, sino más bien de tendencia socializadora" (page 126).

Basadre 1980:  "La Constitución de 1920 fijó, saludablemente, en ciento diez el número de diputados" (page 24).  "La Constitución de 1920 en relación con el sufragio" (page 109-111).

Davies 1974:  "The document that emerged in 1920 contained many important provisions, and two of the most important dealt with Indians and Indian ‘comunidades'" (page 69).  "Another section of the 1920 constitution, Article 140, attempted to counteract the extreme centralism which had characterized Peruvian politics by creating three regional congresses in the South, the center, and the North" (page 71).  "The attempt to divide the country along east-west lines was artificial and the congresses quickly became ineffective bureaucratic centers.  Indeed, centralism increased during the Leguía period" (page 72).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  18/1:  "Se promulga la nueva Constitución que sustituye a la de 1860" (page 503).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "The main changes in the Constitution of 1920 were the cancellation of the one-third parliamentary renewal clause, the extension of the presidential mandate from four to five years, the introduction of a progressive income tax, and the formation of regional congresses in Peru's north, center, and south.  These congresses were an attempt to decentralize Peru" (pages 188-189).

Klarén 2000:  "(T)he official recognition of Indian communities in the new Constitution of 1920 [is] the first such recognition in the history of the republic" (page 247).

Pike 1967:   "In line with the political thought of Leguía and Cornejo, it provided for simultaneous election, every five years, of the entire legislature, both upper and lower chambers, and the President of the republic...Article 58 of the 1920 constitution dealt with the Government's obligations to bring about the rehabilitation of the Indian race by providing for their education and gradual assimiliation" (pages 220-221).

Werlich 1978:   "The constitution also contained the traditional ‘bill of rights' protecting the civil liberties of individuals.  Although the president's term was extended to five years, the ban on a second successive election continued.  Both houses of the legislature were to be elected for five-year terms concurrent with that of the president, a feature that sought to ensure greater rapport between the congress and the executive branch...The new constitution established three regional legislatures, for the northern, central, and southern sections of the country" (page 154).


Hunefeldt 2004:  "Beginning in September 1920 Indian peasant communities began mobilizing to regain their lost land" (page 184).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/11:  "El Gobierno anuncia el descubrimiento de un vasto plan revolucionario para asesinar al presidente Augusto B. Leguía" (page 504).


Davies 1974:  Leguía called a congress of Indian ‘comunidades' in 1921 and out of that body emerged an organization called Pro-Derecho Indígena Tahuantinsuyo" (page 88).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  14/3:  "La ley 4332 suprime las juntas departamentales, importantes instituciones descentralizadoras creadas durante el siglo anterior.  De este modo se acrecienta el centralismo político y administrativo" (pages 504-505).


Davies 1974:  "(O)n September 12, 1921, [Leguía] issued a supreme decree creating a Bureau of Indian Affairs in the Ministry of Development...The establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was a response to a century-long need for a government agency that would confine itself to Indian problems" (page 76).

Werlich 1978:   "In 1921, the government created the Bureau of Indian Affairs to study the problems of the indigenous peoples, recommend reforms, and coordinate state programs for the natives" (pages 161-162). 


Gow 1981:  "The League of Hacendados claimed in 1922 that its mission was to save the Indian from the cult of the ancestors and from the dangers of primitive communism...(T)he first task of the true defenders of the Indians should be to change his religious and social attitudes.  The only way religious and social attitudes could be changed was by destroying them at their roots, and the roots lay in the very structure and organization of the Indian community or ‘ayllu'" (page 82).

McClintock 2003:  "Located in Peru's central highlands, in 1922 [U.S.-owned Cerro de Pasco] opened a new [copper] smelter at La Oroya, with double the capacity of its biggest first one" (page 14).

Werlich 1978:  "In 1922, [Peru and Chile] agreed to submit the plebiscite issue [of Tacna and Arica] to arbitration by the president of the United States" (page 168).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "En la sesión del 2 de agosto de 1922 los senadores José Manuel García y Enrique Basadre presentaron una ley para permitir la reelección sólo por una vez" (page 104).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/10:  "Renuncia Germán Leguía y Martínez al Gabinete ministerial por la aprobación en el Senado de la enmienda constitucional que autoriza la reelección del Presidente de la República" (page 507).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "El proyecto [de reelección] fue aprobado en el Senado en octubre de ese mismo año y de inmediato pasó a la Cámara de Diputados" (page 104).


Alexander 1957:  "In 1923 President Augusto Leguía, dictator at that time, decided that the student-worker movement, of which Haya de la Torre was now the undisputed leader, was a menace to his regime.  He arrested Haya and deported him to Panama" (page 221).

Klaiber 1992:  "The best-known Protestant of that period was Dr. John Mackay...He founded the Anglo-Peruvian School, later renamed Saint Andrew's.  Among the notable teachers in Mackay's school were Haya de la Torre, Luis Alberto Sánchez, Raúl Porras Barrenechea, and Jorge Guillermo Leguía.  This was the basis of Mackay's special relationship with the founder of the Aprista Party.  In 1923 Haya de la Torre sought refuge in Mackay's house...shortly before being deported" (page 95).  "Between 1898 and 1923 some 18,258 Japanese arrived [to work on the sugar haciendas on the coast].  The wide-scale importation of Asiatics drew protests from Peruvians, some for humanitarian reasons and others for reasons of racism" (page 96).

Klarén 2000:  "By 1923, when the trade was suspended, some 11,764 Japanese laborers had arrived in Peru, a figure that was mirrored by the 15,000 immigrant workers who arrived from China in roughly the same period" (page 231).

Pike 1967:  "Even under the best of conditions, neither the Constitutionalists nor the Liberals, woefully lacking internal discipline and adequately prepared young leaders, could have survived the deaths in 1923 of their respective caudillos, Andrés Cáceres and Augusto Durand" (page 218).

Werlich 1978:  "By 1923, about 18,000 immigrants from Japan had entered the republic" (page 127).


Astiz 1969:  Augusto "Durand died in 1923, and his death signaled the disappearance of the Liberal party" (page 92).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  29/3:  "Es apresado en Paita Augusto Durand, acusado de conspiración" (page 507).  31/3:  "Augusto Durand fallece en el crucero ‘Grau'" (page 507).


Klaiber 1992:  "On the occasion of Haya de la Torre's protest march of May 1923, [the Conservative Party of Cuzco] was reorganized and renamed the Catholic Conservative Party.  There was no ambiguity about the ties between the party and the hierarchy and clergy...In the manifesto announcing its reorganization in 1923, the provisional committee called upon Catholics to take an active part in future elections so as to insure that ‘out-and-out Catholics are elected to power'" (pages 86-87).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  18/9:  "Se aprueba la reforma constitucional que permite la reelección del Presidente de la República" (page 508).

Werlich 1978:   "The regime secured a constitutional amendment in 1923 to permit a second successive term for the president" (page 155).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  2/10:  "Apresan a civiles, militares y simpatizantes de Germán Leguía y Martínez por participar en una conjura contra el Gobierno; también detienen a Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, reelecto Presidente de la Federación de Estudiantes del Perú" (page 508).


Gardiner 1975:  In "November 1923...Japanese migration to Peru by contract was abolished" (page 33).  Table shows that 17,764 Japanese emigrated to Peru with the emigration companies between 1898 and 1923.   "(T)he abolition of worker-contracts in 1923 did not scuttle the Japanese desire and capacity to move to Peru...During the 1920s the practice of ‘calling' increasingly accounted for the movement of Japanse immigrants into Peru.  By this procedure a Japanese who desired to emigrate there was, in essence, sponsored by a relative or friend already in that country" (page 36).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Ese 15 de noviembre, y aduciendo que se tramaba una conjura política en su contra, Leguía dispuso el arresto y la deportación de Leguía y Martínez...y de sus principales simpatizantes en el Congreso.  Así concluyó el intento de lanzar una candidatura alternativa a la del presidente de gobierno" (page 104).


Alexander 1957:  "In 1924 the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (A.P.R.A.) was established by Haya in Mexico" (page 221).

Astiz 1969:  APRA "materialized in 1924 in Mexico City, where Haya de la Torre had been exiled by the Peruvian dictator Leguía" (page 95).

Clayton 1999:  "In 1924 I.P.C. came into full possession of the oil fields of La Brea and Pariñas.  Although the company had controlled these fields since 1913, now they owned them...[An international] tribunal recognized I.P.C.'s right to La Brea and Pariñas and ruled that for the next fifty years, or until 1972, I.P.C. only had to pay a small tax on the property" (page 106). 

Dietz 2002:  "Peru's first radical, mass-bassed political party appeared as the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana, or APRA) in 1924, founded and guided by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre" (page 199).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "(T)he first Indian congress was held in Lima in 1924" (page 184).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001: Partido Obrero (1924) es "fundado en Huaraz por Fernando Ortega y Elías Rivas" (page 673).

Valdés 2000:  "1924:  La escritora y feminista Zoila Aurora Cáceres crea la Asociación Feminismo Peruano para luchar por el sufragio femenino" (Anexo:  La lucha por la ciudadanía femenina:  Perú).

Werlich 1978:   "The administration created a well-armed ‘guardia civil' (national police) in 1924.  Ostensibly organized to permit the regular military forces to concentrate on defending the nation's frontiers, the civil guard also counterbalanced the army" (page 157).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  7/5:  "Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre entrega en México la bandera Indoamericana del APRA a los estudiantes de ese país.  El hecho es considerado como la fundación de este movimiento político indoamericano" (page 509).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  14/7:  "Sublevación en el cuartel de Santa María en Arequipa contra el gobierno de Augusto B. Leguía" (page 509).


Basadre 1980:  "La reelección presidencial de 1924" (pages 115-120).

Hunefeldt 2004:  "By controlling elections such that he was the only presidential candidate, Leguía managed to stay in power for a second term from 1924 to 1929" (page 189).

Marett 1969:  "In 1924 the President's five-year term of office, as stipulated in Leguía's own constitution, came to an end.  But the dictator had provided for this contengency by pushing through Congress an amendment which permitted his re-election for the following term" (page 137).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "A mediados de 1924 coincidieron las elecciones presidencial y legislativa...Sólo existió la candidatura de Leguía auspiciada oficialmente por el flamante Partido Democrático Reformista, nombre con que en adelante se identificó el leguiísmo" (page 104).  "El voto directo para los varones mayores de 21 años inscritos obligatoriamente en el registro militar se hacía en las mesas receptoras controladas por la Asamblea de Mayores Contribuyentes de donde debían salir las juntas escrutadoras provinciales que vigilaban la elección de los diputados nacionales y regionales...Los resultados electorales favorecieron casi unánimemente a Leguía" (page 105).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1924-1929.  Senadores" (page 128).  Gives "departamento/apellidos y nombres."  "Congreso 1924-1929.  Diputados" (pages 129-130).  Gives "dpto./provincia" and "apellidos y nombres."

Werlich 1978:   "Leguía was reelected without formal opposition the next year" (page 155).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  12/10:  "Tras haber sido candidato único y luego elegido Presidente, Augusto B. Leguía inicia un nuevo mandato que deberá culminar en 1929" (pages 509-510).

Hunefeldt 2004:  Leguía's "main electoral agenda was the consolidation of the ‘Patria Nueva' (New Country), a program geared toward social progress and the participation-mostly rhetorical-of the working class and Indians...During his second term, Leguía continued in his efforts to undermine the ‘civilistas' political power" (page 189).


Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  El Partido Laborista del Perú (1925) es "fundado por José Manuel Rodríguez" (page 673).


Clayton 1999:  "Peru claimed a plebiscite was no longer viable...Chile now agreed to a plebiscite...Matters stood at an impasse until 1925 when the administration of President Calvin Coolidge, following several years of negotiations beginning in 1922 under Coolidge's predecessor Warren G. Harding, issued an arbitration on March 4.  The plebiscite should be held.  Peru was outraged...To ensure fairness Coolidge's award provided for the establishment of a plebiscitary commission that included provisions for an American to preside over it and decreed strict rules to be followed in the voting-all under the jurisdiction of the commission and not the Chileans" (page 138).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  9/3:  "El presidente de Estados Unidos, Calvin Coolidge, designado árbitro por el Perú y Chile, hace público el laudo que ordena la celebración del plebiscito en Tacna y Arica, en cumplimiento del Tratado de Ancón (1883)" (page 510).  23/3:  "El general John J. Pershing preside la Comisión Plebiscitaria de Tacna y Arica" (page 511).

Werlich 1978:   "Calvin Coolidge announced his decision:  the long-overdue election would be held under North American supervision and persons who had established residence in Tacna and Arica since the War of the Pacific could vote along with natives of the disputed territory.  Stunned by the adverse decision from Washington, Peruvian nationalists denouced Leguía for placing this vital question in the hands of the Yankees" (pages 168-169).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  Agosto:  "Se instala en Arica la comisión plebiscitaria e inicia sus sesiones.  El general John J. Pershing anuncia que averiguará los métodos chilenos de censura y coacción aplicados contra la población peruana" (page 511).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  8/10:  "John J. Pershing expresa que si Chile no pone fin a la intimidación no puede cumplir con el laudo, y enumera once requisitos para la realización del plebiscito" (page 511).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  2/11:  "La comisión plebiscitaria aprueba, con los votos norteamericano y peruano, la moción que señala los ‘requisitos previos para un plebiscito justo'" (page 512).  28/11:  "El general John J. Pershing da su respuesta al delegado chileno Agustín Edwards en relación con la ejecución del plebiscito acordada para el 1 de febrero de 1926" (page 512).


Clayton 1999:  Because of illness, Pershing "was replaced in early 1926 by Gen. William Lassiter, then in charge of the Panama Canal Zone.  Lassiter came quickly to the same conclusion as Pershing.  A plebiscite under the existing conditions would be a miscarriage of justice and impossible to administer fairly.  He counseled that the only other way out was a diplomatic solution agreed to between the two competing parties" (page 140).


Las elecciones municipales de 1926 y los vecinos notables y comerciantes de Mollendo: documentos  2006:   "Por Decreto Supremo de 9 de agosto de 1926...el Presidente de la República, don Augusto B. Leguía, convocó a elecciones municipales en toda la República, a realizarse el 1 y 2 de noviembre de 1926" (page 5).


Clayton 1999:  "Frustrated by the inability to bring the dispute to a close, the United States pulled Lassiter out and declared the plebiscitary proceedings ended in June 1926" (page 140).

Werlich 1978:   "(I)n June 1926 the commission reported that Chilean harassment of Peruvian voters made a fair election impossible.  Peru rejoiced" (page 169).


Las elecciones municipales de 1926 y los vecinos notables y comerciantes de Mollendo: documentos  2006:   "Las Juntas de Registro se instalarían el 1 de septiembre de ese año 1926 y debían llevar a cabo ‘la depuración de los registros existentes y a completarlos con nuevas inscripciones'" (page 5).


Las elecciones municipales de 1926 y los vecinos notables y comerciantes de Mollendo: documentos  2006:   "Las Comisiones de Sorteo iniciarían sus funciones el 10 de octubre, para constituir las Juntas Escrutadoras y Receptoras de sufragios, las cuales debían ‘recibir los sufragios, en la forma determinada por la ley, durante los días 1o y 2 de noviembre'" (page 5).

November 1-2: municipal election

Las elecciones municipales de 1926 y los vecinos notables y comerciantes de Mollendo: documentos  2006:   "En realidad,...la prensa no manifestó mayor entusiasmo por la campaña electoral municipal, salvo contadas excepciones, e inclusive, en muchos lugares de la República ni siquiera se llevaron a cabo dichas elecciones...Las elecciones municipales se llevaron a cabo en Mollendo, sin ningún contratiempo, en las fechas previstas, 1 y 2 de noviembre de 1926...Pero [la lista que triunfó] no llegó a asumir el cargo, ya que el gobierno dispuso continuara en funciones el alcalde anterior" (page 5).  "Resultados de las elecciones municipales realizadas en Mollendo el 1 y 2 de noviembre de 1926" (pages 35-38).

November 3

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "La enmienda constitucional para permitir la reelección indefinida de Leguía se había presentado en la Cámara de Diputados el 3 de noviembre de 1926" (page 106).


Gow 1981:  "The League [of Hacendados]...succeeded, in 1927, in dissolving the pro-Indian Tahuantinsuyo Committee replacing it with the government controlled...'Patronato de la Raza Indigena'" (page 82).


Las elecciones municipales de 1926 y los vecinos notables y comerciantes de Mollendo: documentos  2006:   "Los nuevos Concejos elegidos se instalarán en el 1o de enero de 1927" (page 5).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  5/6:  "El Gobierno denuncia una conspiración comunista.  Son arrestados José Carlos Mariátegui y otros activistas" (page 516).


Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "(E)l 4 de octubre de 1927 el nuevo artículo constitucional [para permitir la reelección indefinida de Leguía fue] promulgado por el gobierno con la firma de Leguía" (page 106).

Werlich 1978:   "Another change in the basic law, approved unanimously by the chamber of deputies in 1927, allowed the indefinite reelection of the chief executive" (page 155).



Klarén 2000:  Haya announces "in January 1928...his candidacy for the presidency of Peru as the head of a new party called the Partido Nacionalista Libertador, supposedly already operating in Peru" (page 260).


Alexander 1957:  The "founding meeting of the Partido Socialista del Perú was held on September 16, 1928" (page 222).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Fundado por José Carlos Mariátegui con el nombre de Partido Socialista del Perú" (page 673).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  10/12:  "Es fundado el Partido Socialista Peruano, llamado posteriormente Partido Comunista Peruano, por José Carlos Mariátegui y un grupo de nueve miembros entre obreros e intelectuales" (page 517).


Clayton 1999:  "By the end of the 1920s about 70 to 80 percent of Peru's petroleum needs were being supplied by I.P.C." (page 107).

McClintock 2003:  "The Grace Company, whose steamship and shipping business had grown dramatically during World War I, expanded its textile operations, owning more than 50 percent of the Peruvian textile sector in the late 1920s.  In sum, whereas U.S. direct investment in Peru was only about $6 million in 1900, by the end of the 1920s it had increased more than thirty times, to $200 million, surpassing considerably the British investment figure of $125 million in 1925" (page 14).


Clayton 1999:  "The Treaty of Lima of 1929, awarding Tacna to Peru and Arica to Chile, settled the dispute" (page 141).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  3/6:  "Se firma el Tratado con Chile que marca el término del conflicto de 1879.  El Perú recupera Tacna, pero pierde definitivamente Arica" (page 518).  26/6:  "Como parte de una política de apoyo a la inmigración europea adoptada por Augusto B. Leguía, desembarca en el Callao el primero contingente de colonos cosaco" (page 518).

McClintock 2003:  "With U.S. mediation, the Tacna and Arica Treaty and Additional Protocol, signed in June 1929, divided the two disputed provinces:  Peru gained Tacna and Chile held Arica...(M)any Peruvians had hoped for more concessions; to mollify these criticisms, Leguía exaggerated the U.S. role in the development of the accord" (page 15).

August:  election (Leguía)

Basadre 1980:  "La reelección presidencial de 1929" (pages 124-126).

Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  4-5/8:  "Elecciones para un nuevo periodo presidencial.  Augusto B. Leguía se presenta como único candidato" (page 518).

Marett 1969:  "In 1930, by means of [another] tampering with the constitution, Leguía was elected for yet another term" (page 137).

Peralta Ruiz 2005:  "Las elecciones se efectuaron el 4 y 5 de agosto de 1929 y nuevamente Leguía asistió en calidad de candidato único y su victoria fue por mayoría absoluta.  De nuevo, las dos cámaras legislativas fueron copadas por conspicuos caciques políticos leguiístas" (pages 106-107).

Tuesta Soldevilla 2001:  "Congreso 1929-1930.  Senadores" (page 125).  Gives "departamento/apellidos y nombres."  "Congreso 1929-1930.  Diputados" (pages 126-127).  Gives "dpto./provincia" and "apellidos y nombres."

Werlich 1978:   "Leguía's continuance in office for a third term was uncontested in 1929" (page 155).


Historia cronológica del Perú 2006:  12/10:  "El presidente Augusto B. Leguía inicia su tercer período presidencial" (page 518).

Werlich 1978:   "The crash of the New York stock market in October 1929 signaled the onset of the Great Depression and hard times for Peru and Leguía...Much of the popularity that the president had enjoyed evaporated with the nation's prosperity...Students and workers taunted Leguía defiantly, and civilian politicians plotted his overthrow with the military" (page 173).